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Nutrition For Pregnancy and Lactation, Fifth Edition
C. M. Bareuther, RD


Manual with 1 Reporting Form, 144pgs.
This up-to-date comprehensive program will enable you to:

  • utilize a five part nutritional assessment process
  • plan effective nutritional intervention strategies
  • recognize the physiological changes in pregnancy and how they affect nutritional
  • needs and feeding strategies
  • identify how alcohol, artificial sweeteners, caffeine, contaminants, nicotine and drugs affect nutritional intake and maternal-fetal health during pregnancy and lactation
  • relate how exercise influences prenatal nutritional needs and postnatal lactation
  • define gestational diabetes and pregnancy-induced hypertension, and identify nutritional intervention in these disorders
  • learn about special needs of teens, multifetal pregnancies, vegetarians and mothers who have diabetes, hypertension, allergies and HIV
  • formulate safe and effective nutrition intervention for weight reduction postpartum, for lactating and non-lactating women

For more information and customer comments, click here.

Approved by CDR

For RDs/RDNs & DTRs/NDTRs for the Professional Development Portfolio

SUGGESTED Learning Need Codes:
3000, 3010, 3020, 3030, 3040, 3090, 3100, 4000, 4040, 4090, 4120, 4130, 4140, 4180, 5000, 5090, 5190, 5200, 5260, 5310, 5350, 5370, 5420, 8010, 8080

SUGGESTED Performance Indicators (PIs):
8.1.1, 8.1.2, 8.1.3, 8.1.4, 8.1.5, 8.3.1, 8.3.5, 8.3.7, 10.1.1, 10.1.3, 10.2.1,10.2.3, 10.2.4, 10.2.5, 10.2.7, 10.2.8, 10.2.9, 10.2.10, 10.2.11, 10.2.12, 10.4.1, 10.4.3, 10.4.4.

DON'T SEE your Performance Indicators or Code Listed here?
There are many Performance Indicators (PIs) that are applicable we can't list them all &
Per CDR you may use ANY PI or CODE as long as it relates to your Learning Plan.
For details
click here.


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To order an ADDITIONAL Reporting Form click below:

15 CPEUs

Edited by Mary Ann Cockram, MS, RD, LD and Wolf J. Rinke, PhD, RDN, CSP

Copyright 2015 Wolf Rinke Associates, Inc. All rights reserved for this self-directed, accredited learning program. Reproduction in whole or part without written permission from the publisher is prohibited.


Melissa Hemond: "I wish I had read this before I had my twins! There was info here I didn't find elsewhere. A great resource and help for next time and to assist friends, family and clients."

Laurie Wasserman: "Informative, interesting material. Moderate cost. Clear precise instructions."

Perbhjot Sran, MA, RD: "Very organized and user friendly."

Randi Freedman: ". . . easily understandable information- very useful in my practice."

Michelle Landry: "I like the questions being practical case study."

Stephanie Collins: "Exercises to practice skills."

Beth Yuro: "The tables were included throughout the chapters. They were informative and easy to follow."

Laura Gomez-Vega: "Deep and actualized information."

Brenda Tucker: "Excellently organized, very current information and a quick and easy reference tool."

Anna Petrov, RD: "Concise, to the point, no "fluff" to wade through."

Melissa Wiles, RD: "I've been a WIC nutritionist. This should be required reading to have that job. Wonderful!"

Amelia Murphy Bell: "Peer-reviewed course. Well referenced text. Questions dove-tailed with the course book well."

Marilyn Musgrave, MS RD LD: "This was an especially good product for anyone working for WIC, especially those just beginning work for WIC. All topics addressed. Fit right into what WIC does for pregnant women.


Conception, pregnancy and lactation are a normal part of a woman's life cycle that uniquely leads to the creation of another human being. In this way, a woman's health is intimately linked to the health and well-being of future generations. Preconceptional nutritional status and adequate nutrient intake during pregnancy are key factors to a successful birth outcome. Data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Special Supplementary Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) aptly illustrate this point. Program participation is associated with higher dietary intakes of energy, protein, iron, calcium, magnesium and vitamins C, B6, B12, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. More specifically, WIC enrollment has been found to increase birthweight from 51 to 117 grams (gms), reduce rates of low and very low birthweight (infant birthweight less than 2,500 gms and 1,500 gms, respectively), and reduce the rate of preterm birth (birth before 36 weeks gestation) (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2013). Furthermore, supplemental foods provided to WIC participants who exclusively breastfeed their infants have also been found to be cost saving both in formula non-expenditures and infant health care costs. Thus, the nutrition professional plays an essential role in the health and well-being of both mother and infant.
Chapter I discusses the current status of today's woman's nutritional health. Information continues with a discussion of dietary factors that can affect fertility. A framework for preconceptional care is provided.
Chapter II reviews the five-part nutritional assessment process in the context of pregnancy.
In Chapter III, discussion begins with the physiology of pregnancy, followed by an explanation of specific nutrient needs and ways to fulfill these needs. This theoretical information is presented in the form of a prenatal meal plan. Guidance is given for variations in this plan, such as vegetarian food choices, lactose intolerance, adolescence, multifetal pregnancy and food safety. The chapter concludes by focusing on feeding problems such as hyperemesis, heartburn, pica and constipation; lifestyle concerns like the use of artificial sweeteners, nicotine, caffeine and alcohol during pregnancy; and the nutritional management of diabetes, hypertension and eating disorders during pregnancy.
Chapter IV progresses into the topic of lactation with a review of the status of breastfeeding initiation and benefits of breastfeeding for mother and infant. As with pregnancy, specific nutrient needs during lactation are discussed, followed by suggestions for implementation in the form of a general meal plan and advice on variations to this basic plan. Discussion then addresses lifestyle concerns that can affect the lactation process as well as the health of mother and infant.
Chapter V concludes with the topic of weight management for lactating and nonlactating women.
A case study provides the opportunity to apply the overall information gained to life situations and is included after the final chapter.
This CPE program is a Level 2 Continuing Professional Education (CPE) program approved for 15 CPE units (CPEUs). Level 2 means that you have general knowledge of the literature and professional practice in the areas covered. The focus of the program is to enhance knowledge and application.
To get the most benefit from this program, we suggest you adhere to the following four steps:
Step 1: Review the objectives for the CPE program.
Step 2: Study each chapter. As you read, think of patients from your own practice that fit the situation described.
Step 3: Assess what you have learned by completing the self-assessment instrument at the end of this CPE program.
Step 4: Compare your answers to the answer key that has been provided. If you score at least 80% correct (40 answers), you are ready to transfer your answers to the CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION REPORTING FORM. If you scored less than 80% correct, re-read this CPE program until you score at least 80% correct.
After you have successfully completed the program, complete the CPEU REPORTING FORM and:
Submit on-line at www.easyCPEcredits.com,
Or fax to: (410) 531-9282,
Or mail to: Wolf Rinke Associates, 3801 Schuylkill Road, Spring City, PA 19475.

We will e-mail your Certificate of Completion.

When you submit your CPE Reporting Form to us via www.easyCPEcredits.com, fax, or mail be sure to write your correct email address in the space provided on the CPE Reporting Form. If writing by hand, be sure to print your email address clearly.

To ensure that our e-mails are delivered to your inbox (instead of your junk/spam folders), please add cpesupport@wolfrinke.com to your Address Book or Safe List of allowed email senders. Also, be sure to allow attachments from this email address.


Upon completion of this accredited, self-directed CPE program, you should be able to:

  • Recognize the link between past and present nutritional status, and its effect on conception, maternal health, fetal growth and a successful birth outcome.
  • Identify nutritional, non-nutritional and lifestyle factors that affect fertility.
  • Describe the relationship and importance of preconceptional and prenatal folic acid supplementation to the prevention of neural tube defects in infants.
  • Specify two key teaching frameworks for preconceptional, prenatal and postnatal nutrition counseling.
  • Recognize the five parts of the nutritional assessment process and understand their usefulness in planning nutritional intervention preconceptionally, prenatally, and postnatally.
  • Calculate BMI and relate this figure to recommended weight gain during gestation for single, twin and multifetal pregnancies.
  • Plot prenatal weight gain and assess the adequacy of the rate and total amount of weight gain.
  • Identify anemia in pregnancy, its definition, evaluation and dietary intervention.
  • Define the physiological changes that occur in pregnancy and lactation.
  • Interpret the nutritional needs of pregnancy and lactation as defined by the RDA into meal plans.
  • Relate the nutritional needs of pregnancy to a vegetarian eating style.
  • Define the nutritional, emotional and educational needs of pregnant teens.
  • Identify food assistance programs that can benefit pregnant and lactating women.
  • List situations when a vitamin-mineral supplement may be appropriate preconceptionally, prenatally and postnatally.
  • Recognize how alcohol, artificial sweeteners, caffeine, contaminants, nicotine and drugs affect nutritional intake and maternal-fetal health during pregnancy and lactation.
  • Relate how exercise influences prenatal nutritional needs and postnatal lactation success.
  • Define gestational diabetes and pregnancy-induced hypertension, and identify nutritional intervention in these disorders.
  • Specify breastfeeding benefits for both mother and infant.
  • Identify nutrient needs during lactation and ways women can consume them in regular and vegetarian meal plans.
  • Recognize the issues surrounding infant allergy and mother's diet in lactation.
  • Specify current policy regarding breastfeeding and HIV-1 infection.
  • Formulate safe and effective nutrition intervention for weight reduction postpartum, for lactating and nonlactating women.


A. Food and Nutrient Consumption Trends In Women
B. Effects of Undernutrition, Overnutrition and Diet Composition on Fertility
C. Oral Contraceptives' Effect On Nutrient Status
D. Preconceptional Nutritional Care
A. Medical, Social and Diet Histories
B. Anthropometrics
C. Biochemical Measurements
D. Clinical Evaluation
E. Drug Review
A. Physiology of Pregnancy
1. Blood Volume and Composition
2. Gastrointestinal System
3. Renal Function
4. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems
B. Nutrient Needs
1. Calories
2. Protein
3. Fat
4. Vitamins and Minerals
C. Feeding the Prenatal Woman
1. Prenatal Meal Plan
a. Implementation
b. Variations
i. Vegetarian diets
ii. Lactose Intolerance
iii. Obesity
iv. Adolescence
v. Multifetal Needs
vi. Food Safety
c. Supplementation
2. Feeding Concerns
a. Nausea
b. Cravings and Pica
c. Gastroesophageal Reflux (Heartburn)
d. Constipation
e. Exercise
3. Substances of Concern During Pregnancy
a. Alcohol
b. Artificial Sweeteners
c. Caffeine and Herbal Teas
d. Contaminants
e. Nicotine
f. Recreational Drugs
D. Medical-Nutritional Concerns Of Pregnancy
1. Diabetes Mellitus
2. Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension
3. Eating Disorders
A. Incidence, Benefits and Promotion of Breastfeeding
B. Physiology of Lactation
C. Nutrient Needs
1. Calories
2. Protein
3. Fats
4. Vitamins and Minerals
5. Fluids
D. Feeding the Lactating Woman
1. Lactation Meal Plan
a. Implementation
b. Variations
i. Vegetarian Diets
ii. Infant Allergy and Intolerance in Breastfeeding
iii. Multifetal Needs
c. Supplementation
2. Special Concerns During Breastfeeding
a. Alcohol
b. Caffeine
c. Contaminants
d. Drugs
e. Exercise
f. HIV and Hepatitis Infection
g. Nicotine
A. During Lactation
B. NonLactation
APPENDIX B: MyPlate for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
APPENDIX C: Prenatal Weight Gain Grids for Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight and Obese Women
Pre-pregnancy Underweight Women
Pre-pregnancy Normal Weight Women
Pre-pregnancy Overweight Women
Pre-pregnancy Obese Women


Carol M. Bareuther is a registered dietitian and member of the Women's Health Dietetic Practice Group. A New Jersey native, she holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Dietetics from Marshall University, Huntington, WV, and completed a dietetic internship at the University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY. She completed post-graduate training in nutrition at the University of Kentucky and Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA.
Bareuther started her career as a pediatric-obstetric dietitian at the University of Kentucky Medical Center. Subsequently, she worked as a clinical dietitian at the Hospital University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; as therapeutic dietitian at the Roy L. Schneider Community Hospital, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands; and currently as a nutritionist for the Virgin Islands Special Supplementary Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). She has authored American Dietetic Association-approved, self-directed, accredited CPE programs, Nutrition for Infants and Children, and Nutrition Therapy for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, published by Wolf Rinke Associates, Inc.
Bareuther works part-time as a freelance writer and has contributed food and nutrition articles to national publications such as Cooking Light, Vegetarian Gourmet, Deli Business, Produce Business, Food Distribution Magazine, Veggie Life, HeartCorps, Cruising World, Best Recipes, Vegetarian Journal, Fancy Food, Chefs, Caribbean Travel & Life, Latitudes South, and Pillsbury's Fast and Healthy Magazine. From 1995 to 1999, Bareuther was the syndicated columnist for Copley News Services' Kitchen Kids.
An author as well as a journalist, Bareuther has published two books, Virgin Islands Cooking and Sports Fishing in the Virgin Islands. She has co-authored Slim-To-Shore with Jan Robinson and Native Recipes, produced by the University of the Virgin Islands Cooperative Extension Service.
Since 1996 she has co-hosted "Nutrition In Good Taste," a weekday radio nutrition program on WVWI AM 1000, which airs throughout the eastern Caribbean. Since 2000, Bareuther has co-hosted "Shape Up Virgin Islands," a monthly half-hour PBS TV program that seeks to show culturally relevant ways to prepare healthful foods and incorporate physical activity.
Bareuther is the mother of two children and, in her spare time, enjoys cooking with her children, swimming, hiking and reading.


Mary Ann Cockram, MS, RD, LD has worked at Abbott Nutrition for 12 years and is currently a Research Scientist in the Nutrition Science and Brand Education group where she provides clinical nutrition education and brand support for Abbott Nutrition's critical care, oncology, and renal nutrition products internally to Sales and Marketing and externally to clinicians and consumers. Outside of her job at Abbott Nutrition, she has been an editor of continuing professional education self-study programs for nutrition professionals for the last six years. Mary Ann's previous clinical experience includes working as a clinical dietitian in a hospital, managing nutritional care for residents in a 200-bed nursing home, and working at a clinical research organization where she provided diet education to clients enrolled in nutrition studies.
Mary Ann received a Bachelor of Science degree in Home Economics from Valparaiso University in Valparaiso, IN, and a Master of Science degree in Clinical Nutrition from Rush University in Chicago.
She is a member of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.), and the National Kidney Foundation (NKF). Mary Ann has served as chair of the Medical Nutrition Practice Group, a dietetic practice group of AND and as the assistant editor and editor of Medical Nutrition Matters, the newsletter of this practice group. Mary Ann continues to write test questions for continuing professional education for the lead articles in Medical Nutrition Matters. She has also participated as an evidence analyst on the Evidence Analysis Team for Adult Weight Management for the American Dietetic Association.

Wolf J. Rinke, PhD, RDN, CSP is the president and founder of Wolf Rinke Associates, Inc., a company that has provided high quality CPE programs to nutrition professionals since 1990.
He earned a Bachelor of Science degree at Drexel University, a Master of Science at Iowa State University, a PhD in Continuing and Vocational Education (Adult Ed) at the University of Wisconsin, and interned at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. He participated in a test item writer workshop sponsored by the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR).
Wolf is a past Adjunct Associate Professor, Graduate School of Management & Technology, University of Maryland, and a former Adjunct Faculty Member, School of Continuing Studies, The Johns Hopkins University.
He is the past president of the DC Dietetic Association and has been honored by the Academy with the Award for Excellence in the practice of Management; the Outstanding Dietitian of the Year Award; the Outstanding Service Award; and has delivered the Lenna Frances Cooper Lecture.
At the Academy he has served in numerous leadership roles including Chair, Scholarship Committee, DBC; Chair, Communication Committee, CDR; Chair, Area Coordinating Committee, COE; Chair, COE, and member of Resource for Education Programs Committee; Honors Committee; CDR, Licensure Panel and Ethical Practices Task Force; CDR; House of Delegates and Board of Directors.
He is the author of more than 500 articles, numerous CPE home-study programs, several popular books, and the free monthly eNewsletter "Read and Grow Rich" written specifically for savvy Nutrition Professionals like YOU!

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